Blood in urine.

Causes and Warning signs
Blood in urine.

Blood in the urine (hematuria) can stain the urine pink, red or brown, depending on the amount of blood, the length of time the blood has been present in the urine, and the acidity level of the urine. An amount of blood that is too small to change the color of the urine (microscopic hematuria) can be detected by chemical analysis or microscopic examination. Microscopic hematuria can be detected by performing a general urinalysis for other reasons.

Hematuria patients may have other symptoms of urinary tract diseases, such as side or back pain, pain in the lower abdomen, acute urination or difficulty urinating, depending on the cause of the appearance of blood in the urine. If a sufficiently large amount of blood is present in the urine, blood may form a clot. The clot can completely block the flow of urine, causing sudden sharp pain and inability to urinate. Severe bleeding that can form such a clot is usually caused by an urinary tract injury.

Red urine is not always caused by the presence of red blood cells. Red or reddish brown urine can be caused by the following reasons:
- Hemoglobin (which carries oxygen in red blood cells) in the urine due to erythrocyte rupture
- Muscle protein (myoglobin) in the urine due to rupture of muscle cells
- Porphyria (a disorder caused by a lack of enzymes involved in the synthesis of heme, a chemical compound containing iron and giving blood red color)
- Food (e.g. beets, rhubarb and sometimes food coloring)
- Medicines

Blood in the urine can be caused by problems in any part of the urinary tract - from the kidneys to the ureters, bladder or urethra. Some women mistakenly accept vaginal bleeding as blood in their urine.

Common causes:
The most common causes are as follows (to some extent they differ depending on age):
- bladder infection (cystitis);
- infection of the prostate gland (prostatitis);
- stones in the urinary tract (in adults).

Less common causes include:
- cancer (kidney, bladder or prostate gland);
- non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia);
- diseases of the small blood vessels of the kidneys (the so-called renal filtration disorders or glomerular diseases);
- cysts in the kidneys (polycystic kidney disease);
- cicatricial narrowing (the so-called strictures) or other abnormalities of the ureters.

Cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia can cause blood in the urine. These disorders are a problem mainly in men over 50, although young people with risk factors (smoking, family history, or exposure to chemicals) can develop cancer.

Pathological changes in the microscopic blood vessels of the kidneys (glomeruli) can be the cause at any age. Renal filtration disorders (glomerular diseases) may be a manifestation of kidney disease or may result from a disease of a different location. Such diseases include infections (infectious disease of the heart valve), connective tissue diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus) and vasculitis, blood diseases (serum sickness), and some chronic diseases (diabetes). In addition, almost any type of kidney damage can cause a small amount of blood in the urine.

Serious injuries, such as a fall or a car accident, can injure the kidneys or bladder and cause bleeding.

Blood schistosome, a parasitic worm that causes infections in Africa and to a lesser extent in India and parts of the Middle East, can enter the urinary tract, causing blood to appear in the urine. Doctors take schistosomiasis into account only if people have spent some time in the regions where this worm is found. Tuberculosis can also cause blood in the urine.

Doctors first try to establish that the cause of the red color of the urine is bleeding. Then they look for the causes of bleeding, including in which part of the urinary tract (or sometimes in other places) the bleeding started.

The following information may help patients find out whether to see a doctor and what to expect during a doctor's evaluation.

Warning signs:
In people with blood in their urine, some symptoms and characteristics are cause for concern. They include:
- pain in the side or back, pain in the lower abdomen
- acute urination or difficulty urinating
- A large amount of blood in the urine
- Age over 50
- Swelling of the feet or legs, as well as high blood pressure

Most often, due to the fact that the symptoms of many diseases overlap, tests are needed to determine the cause (and sometimes the presence) of blood in the urine. First of all, a general urine test is performed. A general urine test can detect blood (confirming that the red color of the urine is caused by blood) and can confirm impaired renal filtration. If infection is suspected, urine culture is usually performed.

At home, you can use the free app AssayMe. AssayMe is at-home urinalysis monitoring of health conditions and a meaningful interpretation of urine test results, especially the combinations of abnormal indicators in just 2 minutes.

Take A Better Control Of Your Health. monitor your urine regularly in a convenient setting of your home.

Be sure to contact your doctor for additional diagnostics.